- Nursing theories are collections of information that characterize nursing, what nurses do, and why they do it. Nursing theories help to identify nursing as a distinct discipline from the rest of the sciences (e.g., medicine). It’s a set of concepts and goals designed to guide nursing practice at a more detailed and particular level.
- Nursing as a profession is dedicated to recognizing nursing science, an unrivaled body of knowledge critical to nursing practice. To distinguish this basis of knowledge, nurses must identify, create, and comprehend nursing-related concepts and theories. Nursing as a science is founded on a philosophy of what nursing is, what nurses do, and why they do it. Nursing is a unique profession that is distinct from medicine. It has its own body of knowledge that it uses to give care.
Nursing theorists – History and Personalities
The first nursing theories developed in the late 1800s when nursing education was given a high priority.
- In her “Environmental Theory” of 1860, Florence Nightingale described nursing as “the act of employing the patient’s environment to support him in his recovery.”
Nursing researchers agreed in the 1950s that it needed to legitimate itself by producing its own scientifically proven body of knowledge.
- Hildegard Peplau’s Theory of Interpersonal Relations, which emphasizes the nurse-client relationship as the core of nursing practice, was first published in 1952.
- Virginia Henderson defined the nurse’s role in 1955 as aiding sick or healthy people in gaining independence in addressing 14 basic requirements. As a result, her Nursing Need Theory was born.
- Faye Abdellah’s article “Typology of 21 Nursing Problems,” released in 1960, moved nursing’s focus from a disease-centered to a patient-centered approach.
- In 1962, Ida Jean Orlando stressed the patient-nurse interaction and saw nursing’s professional function as determining and answering the patient’s immediate need for assistance.
- Dorothy Johnson, who founded the Behavioral System Model in 1968, advocated for the patient’s efficient and effective behavioral functioning to prevent sickness.
- Nursing, according to Martha Rogers, is both a science and an art because it allows us to see the unitary human being as an intrinsic part of the universe.
- Nursing care is required, according to Dorothea Orem’s view, if the client is unable to meet biological, psychological, developmental, or social needs.
- Imogene King’s Theory of Goal Attainment, published in 1971, said that the nurse is a part of the patient’s environment, and the nurse-patient relationship is for achieving health goals.
- Betty Neuman’s theory, published in 1972, asserts that clients have multiple wants, each of which might disrupt client balance or stability. The purpose of the system model of nursing practice is to reduce stress.
- Sr. Callista Roy, who died in 1979, saw the individual as a collection of interconnected systems that keep the numerous impulses in check.
- Jean Watson created the caring philosophy in 1979, emphasizing the humanistic dimensions of nursing as they intersect with scientific knowledge and nursing practice.